MAIN CATALOG (Electronic Resources/LUMCON Library)
Click here to search the Dispersants Bibliography
Click here to search Effects of Offshore Oil and Gas Development Bibliography
ABOUT THE LIBRARY
The LUMCON Library collection was originally housed in Ellender Memorial Library, located at Nicholls State University in Thibodaux, Louisiana. After completion of the DeFelice Marine Center in 1986, the collection was moved to its present location. Since that time, the Library has become an active resource center for LUMCON faculty and staff as well as Consortium member institutions, visiting researchers, students, and the public.
The library contains a computer lab and several study spaces available to visiting students, scientists, or groups (such as attendees of a writing retreat).
The collection and development of library materials reflects LUMCON’s research programs. The collection has approximately:
- 4,600 monographs
- 5,800 bound volumes
- 200 journal titles
- 26 current journal subscriptions
- 850 maps
- 35 atlases
- 3,600 government documents
- 1,500 reprints
In addition, the library houses a complete collection of research products generated by DeFelice Marine Center personnel since LUMCON’s inception.
HOURS OF OPERATION
- The LUMCON Library is staffed Monday through Friday from 7:00 AM to 3:30 PM. All visitors are welcome during these hours.
- The Library is closed to the public on weekends, state holidays, and when the librarian is not on site. Before visiting the facility, please call 985-851-2875 to ensure the Library will be open.
- All LUMCON staff, summer students, and resident visitors have 24-hour access to the Library. If the doors to the Library are locked, the security guard will open them for you.
- Books can be checked out by filling out a card at the circulation desk. The length of time a book can be checked out varies depending on the patron’s status. Books may be renewed by contacting the department, but all items are subject to recall at any time.
- Interlibrary loan service is available for LUMCON faculty, postdocs, lab personnel, and summer students. Although we strive to get items at no charge, the patron may be asked to pay for interlibrary loan charges under certain circumstances.
- Reserve items, reference materials, and journals must remain in the Library. The Library has no photocopier, but copies or scans can be made in the LUMCON main office.
- All materials must be checked out before removal from the Library, without exception.
- Library materials can be placed on reserve for summer classes. A list of items to be placed on reserve should be provided to the librarian as soon as possible.
- When returning material that has been checked out, please drop off items at the circulation counter.
Food is not allowed in the Library under any circumstance. Drinks are only allowed with prior approval by the librarian or the security guard.
The LUMCON Library is available as an internship site for graduate-level students who have completed at least two semesters toward a Master’s degree in Library and Information Science. Applications will be accepted on a continuing basis and internships may be completed during any semester. Prior library experience or an undergraduate degree in science is desirable, but not necessary. Credits will be awarded based on the number of person-hours completed (40 person-hours per credit hour).
The internship will consist of both field experience, encompassing many operations of a special library, and a special project in technical services. The Librarian will give the intern an overview of reference services, technical services, library administration, and budgeting, and will guide the intern through special projects. The LUMCON Library uses SIRSI/Dynix’s Symphony Integrated Library System as well as OCLC for Cataloging/Interlibrary Loan services.
Contact the Librarian for more information or to apply for an internship.
We would like to thank the following individuals for their guidance and input when creating the Dispersants Bibliography:
- Victoria Broje, Per Daling, Alun Lewis, and Francois-Xavier Merlin offered valuable assistance in the early phases of this project. Per Daling’s support was especially noteworthy, by providing conference proceedings that otherwise could not be obtained.
- Deborah Ansell, ITOPF’s librarian, contributed by sharing her sizeable list of library holdings on dispersant publications with us, and filling in gaps where existing citation information was incomplete.
- Likewise, Julie Anne Richardson, librarian for Environment Canada, compiled a publication listing on dispersants housed in her collection, which provided us with additional citations for our project.
- Qianxin Lin at Louisiana State University provided API conference proceedings for us to use in transcribing abstracts.
- Nancy Kinner at the Coastal Response Research Center provided encouragement, focus, and connected us with some of the aforementioned people.
- Finally, Don Davis and Karen Reeder Emory at OSRADP deserve special mention for all of their help and direction during the span of this project.
The LUMCON Library is a member of the International Association of Aquatic and Marine Science Libraries and Information Centers (IAMSLIC), the Southeast Affiliate of IAMSLIC Libraries (SAIL), and the Louisiana Library Network and Information Consortium (LOUIS). Additionally, the Library has access to OCLC Cataloging/Interlibrary loan services.
Click here to search LUMCON’s e-Library catalog using the LOUIS portal.
Open marine water (salinity 30-35‰) is the environment where dispersants are used most frequently in oil spill response. In the Azerbaijan sector of the Caspian Sea, offshore oil and gas reserves are being developed in areas where salinity ranges from 10 to 12‰. Because salinity can affect dispersant efficacy and toxicity, the effectiveness and aquatic toxicity of six commercially available dispersants were tested using Azerbaijan crude oil, Caspian species and 12‰ seawater. Effectiveness for the dispersants tested with Chirag crude oil and Caspian seawater ranged from 72% to 86%, using USEPA’s baffled flask test method. Dispersant toxicities were in the ranges: diatom (Chaetoceros tenuissimus) 72 hr EC50 (effective concentrations inhibiting growth rate by 50%) 18 to >100 mg/l; copepod (Calanipeda aquae dulcis) 48 hr LC50 (effective concentration for immobilizing 50% test organisms) 12 to 49 mg/l; amphipod (Pontogammarus maeoticus) 48 hr LC50 concentration lethal to 50% test organisms) 50 to >100 mg/l. For dispersant use, the key toxicity concern is that of dispersed oil, not dispersant. Aquatic toxicity was determined for water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of Chirag crude in Caspian seawater. Toxicity results for the WAFs were: diatom 72 hr EC50 >10,000 mg/l nominal; copepod 48 hr LC50 3.9 mg/l; amphipod 48 hr LC50 >15 mg/l. Chirag crude was mixed with dispersant at 20:1 oil:dispersant ratio and resulting WAFs were tested for toxicity. Results were: diatom 72 hr EC50
The aim of this work is to study the effect of different types of chemical and biological dispersants used for crude oil spill treatment. The dispersing efficiency of the different dispersants on the crude oil was determined for selecting the most effective one. The basic properties of crude oil participating in the efficiency of dispersion process as viscosity, pour point, wax content, asphaltene content, resin content, etc. were determined. Also the nature of the different dispersants on the dispersing process, studied by FT-IR analysis, showed the presence of the same effective functional groups but in different ratios. The hydrocarbons types distribution of crude oil undispersed and undispersed parts were used as a marker for the degree of dispersion and/or biodegradation.The lowest values of undispersed saturate indicate the highest degree of dispersion or biodegradation. The lower normal alkanes are much more dispersed than the higher ones. The enzyme showed a moderate efficiency for dispersing crude oil, and this efficiency increased by increasing the time of contact with oil which lead to the dispersion of higher molecular weight normal alkanes
In a review of published research on toxicological effects of synthetic detergents, areas of consensus regarding exposure to marine organisms are illustrated. Acute toxicity occurs in fish exposed to concentrations between 0.4 and 40 mg/l. Gill damage is the most obvious trait, although internal effects that induce mortality are noted. Invertebrates at juvenile stages experience inhibited growth when exposed to concentrations below 0.1 mg/l. Sublethal exposure also effects invertebrate feeding behavior, inhibits chemoreceptor organs, and may lead to increased uptake of other pollutants. The influence of detergent/protein interaction on membrane permeability may be the source of the biological effects in organisms
This report presents additional work on an analytical method for the determination of oil in water solutions in the presence of dissolved detergents. A previous report describes a method for the removal of the oil by a silica-gel treatment and the subsequent analysis of the oil in a CCI4 extract using an IR spectrophotometer. The work covered by this report is concerned with testing and improving the analytical method and working out a standard operating procedure
Bioassays (7-day early life stage and 96 h acute bioassays) were conducted with the sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegates, to determine the toxicity of the dispersant Omni-Clean® by itself and in combination with fuel oil no. 2. Performance characteristics of both bioassay types were also compared. Bioassays used oil by itself, dispersant by itself, and oil and dispersant in various ratios. Omni-Clean® was less toxic than many other dispersants, and had a relatively small effect on individual biomass. Toxicities of the oil/dispersant combinations were generally higher than expected from the toxicities of the oil and dispersant by themselves, indicating a more-than-additive effect on toxicity. The comparison of performance characteristics between the 7-day and the 96-hour bioassays showed that the early Life stage test is generally more sensitive, and has the added advantage of an additional and sensitive endpoint (fish biomass)
It has long been the policy of the National Response Team (NRT) that the appropriate use of dispersants as a first strike method of response to marine oil spills could greatly minimize the impacts of such spills. Beginning in early 2000, the Region IX Regional Response Team (RRT) evaluated the appropriateness of dispersant use for the State of California. In January 2001, the RRT signed into effect a dispersant use policy for the federal waters off the coast of California from 3200 nm offshore. These revisions to the Regional Contingency Plan provided a streamlined decision making process for dispersant use and designation of zone. Specifically, the plan called for each of the six local area committees to develop and forward recommendations for dispersant-use zone designations into one of three categories: pre-approval, pre-approval with consultation, or incident-specific RRT approval required. Each of the six local area committees utilized a modified Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) known as a Net Environmental Benefit Analysis (NEBA) process to identify concerns and prioritize risk. Such an approach ensured consistency along the coast as well as provided a mechanism by which all points of view were considered. Utilizing a “what if” oil scenario, each on-water response option (no-response, dispersants, in situ burning, mechanical recovery) was evaluated for its ability to remove oil from the water surface and potential environmental impacts. A risk matrix allowed comparison between species and habitats. Participants were encouraged to share their concerns along with the key drivers for their response decisions, often allowing them to think outside their typical agency-centered framework. Based on seasonality and species of special concern, zones for dispersant use were designated as a means of providing protection to sensitive shorelines and on-water species. As of November 2002, the RRT has adopted Dispersant Use Zones for all designated off-shore waters. Current efforts are underway to incorporate the necessary dispersant planning information into the State and Federal Planning efforts. The response to the workshops was overwhelmingly positive. The NEBA/workshop approach facilitated the subsequent work undertaken by the U.S. Coast Guard and the RRT as in integral part of the implementation of the US-Mexico Agreement, further ensuring a coordinated bi-national oil spill response
The use of dispersants in marine waters off California requires detailed foresight and planning. In an effort to expedite a decision to use dispersants and reduce first strike response time, the Region IX Regional Response Team tasked California’s Marine Area Committees to recommend dispersant approval zones. Each Area Committee conducted Net Environmental Benefit Analyses for their areas of responsibility, and from those analyses recommended dispersant zone designations to the U.S. Coast Guard and the Regional Response Team (RRT). All zone recommendations were approved by the RRT in July 2002, and development of the remaining elements of the dispersant plan began. Using primarily a model developed in NZ, the authors drafted a comprehensive dispersant use plan for the waters off California. The U.S. Coast Guard Captains of the Port in California reviewed the draft plan, and tested it during the April, 2004 Spill of National Significance (SONS) drill in southern California. The streamlined decision flowcharts, imbedded “decision boxes” and operational appendices with further instructions, forms and resource contact information, proved the California Dispersant Plan was a very intuitive and workable response decision tool. During the SONS drill, this greatly improved the ability of the Unified Command to make a decision regarding dispersant use, get the resources in place, and begin dispersant sorties within the operational “window” for dispersant use. It is expected that the same expedited and informed response process will serve California well during an actual oil spill response
The acute toxicity to P. quadridentatus, of Kuwait light crude oil, BP/AR dispersant and an oil-dispersant mixture was determined. Observed 96-h LC50 values averaged 1555 mg 1-1 for oil added to water. A statistically valid 96-h LC50 value for the dispersant was not obtained, but results indicated that a solution containing between 1300 and 2200 mg 1-1 might be expected to produce 50% mortality. A mixture of oil and dispersant in the ratio 4 : 1 gave an observed 96-h LC50 value of 96 mg 1-1, a 16-fold increase in toxicity over oil alone. The implications of the results are discussed
Several Latin American countries currently use Artemia to evaluate the aquatic toxicity of dispersants. Test methods used to evaluate dispersant toxicity to Artemia are not uniform. The study reported here demonstrates how varying Artemia test conditions can significantly affect toxicity results for the dispersant Corexit® 9500. The type of seawater used in Artemia toxicity test affects 48 hour LC50 values for Corexit 9500 (lethal concentration for 50% of test organisms). Nominal LC50 values ranged from 35 to 147 ppm when natural seawater was used. Nominal LC50 values ranged from 29 to 39 ppm when a synthetic seawater prepared from Crystal Sea® Marinemix was used. Greater toxicity was observed when synthetic (reconstituted) seawater was prepared according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1987) Artemia dispersant test guideline. Observed nominal LC50 values ranged from 8.4 to 14 ppm. Age of the Artemia nauplii is another test variable that can significantly affect toxicity results. The 48 hour nauplii showed greater toxicity to Corexit 9500 than 24 hour oil nauplii. In tests using two types of synthetic seawater (Coral Reef Red Sea Salt® and Crystal Sea® Marinemix at 20 °C, 20 ppt salinity), nominal LC50 values ranged from 29 to 68 ppm for 24 hour old nauplii; 48 hour old nauplii had LC50 values ranging from 9 to 27 ppm. Greater toxicity was also observed in 48 hour nauplii under different salinity and temperature (Red Sea, 25 °C, 33 to 35 ppt salinity). The LC50 values were 33 and 1.6 ppm for 24 and 48 hour nauplii respectively
The biological effects of oil dispersants, phenol, and waste water from 2 sulfate pulp mill have been studied. 2 Ophyrotrocha spp (O. labronica and O. diadema) and the archiannelid Dinophilus gyrociliatus have been employed as test animals. These small organisms are easily cultivated in the laboratory and all stages of the life cycle are available throughout the yr. The experimental design and the results are discussed
During an oil-spill, several contingency arrangements are made to limit environmental damages by the spilled oil. An acceptable method is the use of chemical dispersants which break up the oil slick into oil in water emulsions. These chemicals are widely used in our riverine areas during routine cleaning of oil spillage with little regards to their ecological impact on the environment. In order to assess the impact of oil spillage and several chemicals used in the cleaning operation, it was though necessary to study the toxicity of crude oil and chemical dispersant alone and when both are used in combinations. The present study also reports the potentiation of toxicity of crude oil by two chemical dispersants (Teepol and Conco-k) on Barbus fingerlings and Clarias eggs obtained from local fish ponds (Nigeria)
Since the discovery of oil in Kuwait, most oil-related activities have been located along the coastline 50 km south of Kuwait City. Other related industrial activities have been developed in this area apart from oil and petroleum products export in order to diversify the national sources of income. For these reasons, the potential for large oil spills in Kuwait’s marine environment is highest along the south coast, where oil refineries and exporting facilities are located. An average of 219 barrels of oil were spilled annually between 1979 and 1985, and 2,100 gallons of dispersants were used in cleanup operations. The majority of incidents involved less than 5 barrels of oil and 500 gallons of dispersants. Incidents involving more than 100 barrels of oil and 5,000 gallons of dispersants were confined to the Sea Island and Mina Al-Ahmadi North and South Piers. This distribution undoubtedly affects the concentration of petroleum residues in various components of the marine environment, resulting in an increase in tar ball density along this coast, reaching a maximum at Ras Az-Zor, and significantly higher levels of vanadium and petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments and oysters collected south of Mina Al-Ahmadi. The objective of this paper is to report on the number, volume, and frequency distribution of oil spill incidents in Kuwait and the usage of dispersants in cleanup operations. Vandium and petroleum hydrocarbons concentrations also are described as the sensitivity of the southern coastal environment to oil spills. Recommendations have been made on how to conduct cleanup operations for any future oil spill incidents along the southern shoreline of Kuwait
In this respect mono-, di-, and tri- sorbitol oleate esters [SMO, SDO, and STO] were prepared and then ethoxylated using ethylene oxide to obtain six sorbitol esters at different ethylene oxide content (e.o=5, 12, 15, 20, 35, and 45). They were tested as oil spill dispersants individually and in blends. From the obtained data, it was found that the blends are more effective than the corresponding individual surfactants. The maximum dispersion capability for the prepared surfactants was obtained at HLB range from 9 to 11 for the both individual surfactants and blends. The increase of total carbon number in the surfactant alkyl group leads to increase dispersion capability of the dispersant. The wide range of ethylene oxide content was used, but the maximum dispersion efficiency was obtained at ethylene oxide=20 in E(20)STO. Meanwhile, the dispersion capability increases when the interfacial tension decreases
Oil, Corexit 9527, and mixtures of oil/Corexit at a 5:1 ratio were applied to mallard embryos to determine pollutant effects on hatching success and weight of hatchlings. Corexit/oil mixtures negatively affected hatching success, suggesting that the dispersant speeded the lethal effect of the oil. Corexit/oil mixtures also had an impact of hatchling weight when compared to those exposed to oil or dispersant alone
A widely used chemical oil dispersant, Corexit 9527 (Exxon Chemical Company U.S.A.), when applied to the egg shell in small amounts (5 and 20 mu l), is as toxic to mallard (Anas platyrhynchos ) embryos as crude oil itself. However, nothing is known about the effects of oil chemically dispersed in water on bird eggs or on the nesting behavior of breeding birds; nor is it known if dispersants can keep oil from adhering to birds. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Corexit 9527 and crude oil sprayed with Corexit 9527 on breeding mallard ducks
A new approach to applying chemical dispersants from boats has been developed. The equipment has a greater swath width and, thus, greater coverage rates than existing technology. Coverage rates of 2½ square miles per day per boat are likely and four or more square miles per day is possible. The method utilizes high speed fans which create a focused air stream with maximum velocities of 90 miles per hour. Dispersant is injected into and propelled by the air stream. With the air stream acting as a carrier for the dispersant, the spraying of smaller volumes of concentrate dispersant or dilute dispersant over a wide swath width is made possible. The focused air stream and dispersant impacts the water surface in approximately a straight line. The water surface is gently agitated by the air stream and liquid impact. A dispersant fan sprayer has been built and tested statically on land and demonstrated offshore on a supply vessel while spraying water. Design parameters include fan size, air stream velocity, expected swath width, and concentrate (low volume) versus dilute (large volume) spraying
A chemical dispersant spraying system for use on seagoing workboats has been developed. Using two spray booms, the system can spray a path up to 60 ft. wide at a speed of 8 knots, thus covering approximately 67 acres per hour. The design is based on the use of “self-mix surfactant,” which requires little mixing energy for effective dispersion of the oil slick. Three of these systems have been completed for Clean Atlantic Associates, an oil spill cleanup cooperative. The system is made up of an apparatus for deploying and supporting two 30 ft spray booms, a 45 hp pump skid for pumping a mixture of seawater and dispersant, and a Marine Portable 500 gal tankage for storing the dispersants. The spray apparatus is designed to be attached to the bow of the boat. This allows the boom to spray the mixture of seawater and dispersant ahead of the bow wake. Subsequent mixing energy is provided by the bow wake. When not using a self-mix dispersant, additional mixing energy can be provided by breaker boards; however, these are not included in the system. Seawater is drawn from an overboard suction line, proportioned with the chemical dispersant at a typical ratio of 33 to 1, and pumped at a high pressure (90 to 100 psi) through fan-type nozzles. The entire system is readily adaptable to various sizes and shapes of vessels, and operates independently of the vessel to which it is mounted
The necessity to combat oil slicks makes it necessary to assess the relative effectiveness and toxicity of dispersal agents used. This is usually done by using individual or groups of indicator organisms. The theory behind the various approaches is outlined, and some considerations are listed for the choice of technique. 2 organisms were chosen - the Portuguese oyster (Crassostrea), and the phytoplankton alga Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin, on which if feeds - and the oyster closing reaction, and level of inhibition of growth under the influence of irritant products was measured. Methods are described, and the results shown for emulsifying, agglomerating and precipitating products. The results are discussed, and the mode of interference of the products suggested. Products were allotted a 'coefficient of effectiveness', and one emulsifier, 5 agglomerants and 4 precipitants are concluded to be of use. It is noted that they may have different effects on other species
Concentrations of total hydrocarbons within the boiling point range of the alkanes n-C14 and n-C32 were determined in oysters, Pinctada margaratifera, from coastal waters of Kuwait. Levels of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons were highest in an area adjacent to the major oil loading facilities. Whether the use of dispersants to treat minor spills increases levels of incorporation of petroleum compounds into the food webs could not be concluded from the data of this study. Levels of total petroleum-type hydrocarbons in the oysters at this site were equivalent to those in mussels, Mytilus sp., from harbours, bays and urban coastal areas of California. The Kuwaiti oysters lacked a C28 pentacyclic triterpane that was present in extracts of mussels from southern California that had been recently exposed to a minor spill or to a natural seepage. Levels of DDE and PCB were comparable to those in relatively unpolluted areas of North America
Four oils (South Louisiana crude, Kuwait crude, No. 2 fuel oil and bunker C residual oil) were tested to establish qualitative hydrocarbon fractions and behavior in seawater either as water-soluble fractions or as oil-in-water dispersions. Water-soluble fractions showed more light aliphatics and single-ring aromatics in composition, while refined oils had higher concentrations of naphthalenes in oil-in-water dispersions. In exposure experiments using six test species, the water-soluble fractions and oil-in-water dispersions of refined oils were more toxic than the crude oils tested. The species were ranked from least sensitive to most sensitive: Cyprinodon variegates, Menidia beryllina, Fundulus similes, Penaeus aztecus ipostlarvae, Palaemonetes pugio and Mysidopsis almyra
Data on toxicity and effectiveness of 14 chemical dispersants were combined in a straightforward equation to provide an overall assessment of the relative merits of the oil spill chemicals. When a decision is made by regional response authorities to mitigate the damage of spilled oil to the shoreline, our findings should aid in the selection of an effective low toxicity product. Products were evaluated by using standard toxicity tests with a mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia) and a standard effectiveness test using the Mackay-Nadeau-Steelman (MNS) apparatus. Ratios of dispersant to oil required to maintain 90% dispersions of oil in seawater (15 °C and 30%) with a standard mixing energy (1.0 in. of water pressure) of air flow were derived for each chemical by using Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Toxicity tests with M. bahia were conducted at 25 °C and 25% by using freshly hatched juveniles (15 per concentration times 5 concentrations) in small dishes in an incubator
The shrimp Pandalus danae was exposed, in a flowing system, to a water extract of Prudhoe Bay crude oil and to chemically dispersed dilutions of this oil. Mortality produced over a period of 10 hours to 9 days was followed to the point of 50 percent survival in each tank. The product of time to 50 percent mortality (in days) and the measured concentration (in parts per million (ppm)) in each tank was used to describe the toxicity of the solutions. This toxicity index (ppm-days) was 4.5 times higher in the winter and fall than in spring and summer tests with the same oil extract. In the warmer months, when shrimp were more sensitive, oil dispersed with chemicals was about half as toxic as the seawater extract of the oil. Differences in the concentrations of specific petroleum hydrocarbons in the seawater extract and the chemically dispersed oil aid in explaining the toxicity observed. Toxic aromatics represent 98 percent of the extract but only 67 percent of the dispersed oil since the latter is enriched with droplets of oil containing 33 percent saturated and other insoluble components. Linear dilution of dispersed oil to zero in 26 hours resulted in toxicity indices quite similar to those produced in constant exposure
An exposure system and method of quantifying toxicity were developed to provide an estimate of the effects of dispersed oil on marine organisms under a variety of exposure conditions. Results of constant concentration exposures (for hours or days) can be compared to those of diluting exposures (decreasing to zero in 8 or 24 h) on a basis of the “toxicity index.” This index is equal to the total exposure when time in hours or days is multiplied by the concentration at each hour (ppm·hr) or ppm·days). Tests have been conducted with shrimp (Pandulus danae), two oils (Prudhoe Bay crude and a light Arabian crude), and two dispersants. There is a seasonal pattern to the tolerance of the shrimp. Tests in the colder months (fall/winter) produce toxicity indices approximately three times higher than summer/spring values. Testing shrimp with Prudhoe Bay crude oil and a chemical dispersant during the fall/winter season, we found constant and 24-h dilution exposures produced toxicity indices of 11 (±1.1 standard error) and 10 (±0.6 standard error) ppm·days, respectively. During the fall/winter season (greatest tolerance), tests with Prudhoe Bay crude and two different chemical dispersants produced toxicity indices for P. danae of 10 (±0.6) and 12 (±1.1) ppm·days. During tests in summer, there was also little difference observed when the toxicity of the light Arabian oil was compared to that of Prudhoe Bay crude (2.3 and 3.4 ppm·days, respectively). The usefulness of our methods is that in addition to the comparisons already noted, it is possible to predict the outcome of dispersant application under varying environmental conditions
Tests have been conducted to determine the extent of dispersed oil sorption on sediments and retention of this association when seawater is flushed through the substrate. Sediment beds were prepared where dispersed oil in seawater was allowed to percolate down through the sand. Water concentrations of dispersed oil were determined before and after percolation. Distribution of oil in sediments was shown to be very patchy and not suitable for quantitating effects on benthic species. Eighty-three percent of the oil remained in the top 3 cm during this process. Additional tests in special cores showed that sediments containing dispersed oil would release about 40% of the oil when seawater flowed from the bottom of the core up through the bed of sand. Based on the fact that most of the dispersed oil is held in the 3 cm of substrate when water is drained completely through the sediment, it is recommended that exposure systems be designed with a layer (2 to 3 cm) of contaminated substrate on top of clean sediment. Fiberglass trays (with mesh bottoms) were prepared in this manner and exposures initiated in both subtidal and intertidal areas in Sequim Bay, Washington. The alterations in hydrocarbon component composition during the exposure periods will be described. Biological responses measured in these studies were the growth of small clams and the recruitment of multiple benthic species
Several field experiments with natural sediments in the intertidal zone were conducted over a two-year period to compare the effects of Prudhoe Bay crude oil and this same oil dispersed with Corexit® 9527 (1 part Corexit to 10 parts oil). The clams used were Protothaca staminea and Macoma inquinata. Exposure periods ranged from one to six months. In a one-month exposure to about 2,000 parts per million (ppm) total oil in sediments, survival of P. staminea was two to three times greater than that of M. inquinata, and both species exhibited lower tolerance to oil alone in sediment than dispersed oil at the same concentration. Dispersed oil in this 30-day exposure also produced a decrease (compared to field controls) in the concentration of some of the free amino acids in the tissues of M. inquinata. Four- and six-month field exposures of small P. staminea to sediment containing oil or dispersed oil (about 2,000 ppm) reduced growth in both oil treatments (four-month exposure) or in just the chemically dispersed oil treatment (six-month exposure). In the latter experiment initial petroleum concentrations in the surface sediments (top 3 centimeters) were higher (about 3,000 ppm) for the dispersed oil than for oil alone. Surface layers in both conditions were free of contamination (down to 6 cm) after six months
Many previous studies of oil toxicity used high oil concentrations and water soluble fractions (WSF). The aim of this study was to approximate field conditions, in which weathering and chemical dispersions reduce the volatile fractions of spilled crude oil. The objective was to determine the extent of toxicity reduction produced by decreased concentrations of monoaromatics and diaromatics. The study measured the relative toxicity of fresh Prudhoe Bay crude (PBC) oil and two distillation fractions (Stage I and Stage II) and their chemical dispersions to the shrimp Pandalus danae and the fish Ammodytes hexapterus (sand lance). The hydrocarbon composition of three oils, the WSF of the oils, and the chemical dispersions were measured. Distillation of fresh PBC oil produced a State I oil containing very low amounts of monaromatics (benzene and alkylbenzenes) but with the diaromatics relatively unchanged. Further distillation produced a State II oil which contained only higher molecular weight aromatics of three rings (phenanthrenes) and greater. Saturate hydrocarbons with corresponding boiling points also were removed. Bioassays on shrimp with dispersed oils showed that the removal of monoaromatics (State I) reduced toxicity about sevenfold. The WSF of Stage I oil and both WSF and dispersions of Stage II oil were not toxic to shrimp. Toxicity from fresh PBC oil WSF and dispersions was likely the result of the combination of monoaromatic and diaromatic compounds. Sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) mortality did not correlate with the aromatic content of the oils, but appeared to be affected by dispersed oil droplets of all three oils to about the same degree. The fish were more resistant to dispersed oil than the shrimp (higher toxicity index). However, when latent mortality is considered, the data show that the fish may be more sensitive than shrimp to dispersed oil
For each of the following methods which employ chemicals to clean up oil spills in ocean, lake, and river waters, the process is explained and available products are described--sorbants, dispersants, oxidation and biodegradation, and jelling and polymerization. The Federal Water Quality Administration policy on the use of chemicals to treat floating oils is given
This database consists of citations found in journals, conference proceedings, government reports and gray literature covering over 40 years of published research on oil spill dispersants. Citations were collected from 1960 through June 2008. This bibliography was compiled and edited by John Conover, Associate Librarian at LUMCON, and funded by a grant from the Louisiana Applied and Educational Oil Spill Research and Development Program (OSRADP).
EFFECTS OF OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS DEVELOPMENT BIBLIOGRAPHY
- Ecological, anatomical, and physiological effects of oil and/or gas, Species as biomarkers, PAH uptake and bioaccumulation, etc.
- Biochemistry, Biodegradation, Bioremediation, Hydrocarbon degradation, Environmental sampling, Soil contamination, etc.
- Technological advancements in facility/equipment design and use, Spill response and recovery equipment, Physical properties of oil and gas, etc.
- Environment/Ecosystem Management/Spills
- Environmental assessment and management, Oil and/or gas spill description and analysis, etc.
- Social and economic ramifications, Politics, Governmental policy and legislation, Organizational policy, General interest, etc.
This bibliography is a quarterly compilation of current publications (citations with abstracts) from a wide variety of electronic and print information sources relating to offshore oil and gas development. It is compiled and edited by John Conover, Associate Librarian at LUMCON. Items listed may or may not be available at the LUMCON Library. Items without annotations were unavailable for perusal prior to publication.
All questions about using library facilities, locating library resources, or searching LUMCON catalogs should be directed to the Librarian.